The Push-Pull-Legs Routine: Build Muscle Mass and Strength with PPL (Workouts Included!)

by Elliot Reimers, M.S.(C), CNC | Reviewed by Advisory Board

The Push-Pull-Legs Routine: Build Muscle Mass and Strength with PPL (Workouts Included!)

The Push-Pull-Legs Split for Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced Lifters

Designing an effective push-pull-legs workout from the ground up takes a bit of planning and strategy, regardless of prior lifting experience. Thankfully, the push-pull-legs routine is fairly straightforward and easy to follow for just about any gym-goer, athlete, or bodybuilder that wants to pack on muscle mass and increase strength.

Throughout this guide, we will detail a range of compound exercises to include in your push-pull-legs split so you target major muscle groups efficiently. By the end, you will have the tools necessary to create not only a sound push-pull-legs routine but also any other workout split you find intriguing. This will help in the future if you choose to try a different workout routine, such as this powerbuilding program.

So, what is the push-pull-legs routine, exactly? Read on and we'll get you up to speed on this popular weight-training split.

What is the Push-Pull-Legs Routine?

Push-pull-legs (PPL) is a workout routine that splits muscle groups into two basic functional categories: muscles that push weight and muscles that pull weight. These are the two primary roles of muscles from a biomechanics standpoint; they either flex or extend, thereby decreasing or increasing joint angles.

When lifting weights, the consequent force of contracting muscles propels objects away from the body or pulls objects closer to the body. (Static/isometric force is the exception, but that's not pertinent here.)

An everyday example is pulling a door shut, which involves flexing your biceps and latissimus dorsi (lats). In the context of gym workouts, the barbell bench press is the most obvious example of a push exercise since it requires you to flex your pectorals (chest muscles) and triceps to push the weight off your chest.

Hence, PPL workouts are separated into push days, pull days, and leg days. Technically speaking, your legs are involved in both pulling and pushing movements.

The barbell squat, for example, is a "push exercise" where you drive through your heels to thrust your body upwards (i.e. raise the bar away from the ground). Leg curls, on the other hand, are a "pulling exercise."

Your core muscles (e.g. abdominals, obliques, and spinal erectors) are also used in both pushing and pulling exercises, so they are typically trained on leg days of a PPL split.

Muscles Worked by PPL Workouts

PPL workout

As a whole, the push-pull-legs routine is a full-body split that trains all the major muscle groups at least once per week. In many cases, you'll train a muscle group two times per week. However, PPL isn't a true "full-body" workout in the sense that you don't directly work all the major lower- and upper-body muscle groups in a single training session.

Rather, you'll exercise muscles according to their biomechanical function of pushing or pulling. Since push movements engage muscles that project force outward, the primary muscles worked on push day are the pecs (chest), triceps, and shoulders.

Pull day is essentially the opposite; pulling movements recruit mostly the muscles found in the mid-to-upper back (e.g. trapezius, lats, and rhomboids), biceps, and rear deltoids. You may also be deadlifting during pull workouts, so your entire posterior chain will get a good amount of work.

Lower-body exercises will be a mix of pull and push movements that focus on the muscles of the hips and legs (i.e. quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and glutes). To reiterate from earlier, the barbell squat is a press, whereas leg curls are a pull. Deadlifts are also technically a press when done correctly. In any case, most people prefer to deadlift on pull day instead of leg day.

Basics of the Push-Pull-Legs Split: How Many Workouts Per Week?

As the name implies, a push-pull-legs workout split starts with a push workout that targets each pushing muscle group in the upper body. The ensuing workout is a pull workout involving all the upper-body muscles that pull. After the push and pull workouts, a lower-body workout completes the PPL "cycle" before circling back to a push workout.

Here is what a push-pull-legs 3-day split might look like if you train starting on Monday:

  • Monday - Push Day Workout
  • Tuesday - Rest Day
  • Wednesday - Pull Day Workout
  • Thursday - Rest Day
  • Friday - Leg Day Workout
  • Saturday and Sunday - Rest Days

As you can see, it's pretty simple and allows for plenty of downtime to recover between workouts. However, more advanced lifters might train four, five, or even six days per week on a PPL split, hitting each muscle group several times in the process.

While there are several ways you can split workouts on a push-pull-legs routine, the most common approach for beginner and intermediate lifters is to train three or four days per week. Advanced trainees may hit the gym six days per week if they can handle the demands of training muscle groups that frequently.

However, rest and recovery is essential to build muscle mass and ensure continual progress on a push-pull-legs routine. As such, do not plan on lifting every day of the week. Muscle growth (hypertrophy) occurs when you're not in the gym. Training too frequently can ironically lead to subpar results and performance decrements.

Listen to your body and be receptive to indicators of overtraining. You're better off lifting four days per week while feeling strong and refreshed each workout instead of training five or six days per week and dragging every time you hit the gym.

Remember, it's not necessarily the time you put in that matters, but what you put in the time that counts. Many gym-goers get fantastic results by lifting just three or four times per week for 45 to 60 minutes. A push-pull-legs split doesn't have to eat up all your time. If anything, it should not take you 2+ hours to complete every PPL workout, especially if you're following a five- or six-day split.

And if you need a little kick in the butt before hitting the gym, don't overlook the usefulness of a clinically dosed pre-workout powder like Transparent Labs BULK. (There's a reason Hafþór Júlíus Björnsson, aka "The Mountain," can count on BULK before every workout.)

How to Create a Push-Pull-Legs Routine for Muscle Mass and Full-Body Strength

Now that you have a better sense of the PPL split, let's talk about the different exercises to include in push workouts, pull workouts, and leg workouts. The essential movements on any given day are compound free-weight exercises. These exercises recruit multiple muscle groups, making them the cornerstone of any training routine.

By starting your PPL workouts with compound exercises, you'll have the full-body strength necessary to move heavier weights. Over time, lifting heavier loads creates more mechanical overload, and therefore, muscle growth.

Since compound exercises tax several muscle groups, don't worry too much about "feeling" the muscles work when performing them. Focus on proper form, controlling the weight, and the general movement patterns involved.

Think of each muscle group involved in a compound lift like an instrument in an orchestra. Everything must be perfectly in rhythm for the music to sound how it's intended. The same applies to exercises like the barbell squat, deadlift, and bench press. It's good to push yourself by adding weight to the bar, but not if it compromises your form or throws off your balance.

Isolation exercises are where you can treat each muscle group like a guitar solo. These movements allow you to zero in on the proverbial "mind-muscle connection" and get a solid pump by stimulating blood flow to the target muscle group. As such, it’s best to save isolation movements for the latter part of workouts when your muscles are already fatigued.

With that in mind, here are the top exercises for each workout on a push-pull-legs routine:

Exercises for Push Workouts

Push exercises will predominately engage your chest, shoulders, and triceps. Depending on your experience level, pick three to four compound exercises to start your push workouts and two to three isolation exercises to finish each session. Try to stick to your exercise selections for at least six weeks; you want to give yourself enough time to see progress on the lifts you choose before changing things up.

Here are some examples of push exercises that you can add to your “push day” workout:

Compound Push Exercises

  • Dumbbell bench press – flat, incline, or decline
  • Barbell bench press – flat, incline, or decline
  • Seated dumbbell shoulder press
  • Standing military press
  • Arnold shoulder press
  • Push-ups
  • Dips

Isolation Push Exercises

  • Skull crushers (French press)
  • Tricep extensions
  • Tricep pressdowns
  • Dumbbell flys, cable flys, or pec deck machine*
  • Dumbbell lateral raise*

*Technically a pulling movement, but fits better on push day.

Pull Day Exercises

Pull exercises

Pull exercises are the direct opposite of push exercises. As such, you'll be pulling the weight towards you during pull workouts and targeting your biceps, back muscles (e.g. lats, traps, and rhomboids), and shoulders (mostly the rear delts). Like push day, select three to four compound exercises and two to three isolation exercises to follow for four to six weeks, then change up your pull exercises a bit to keep things fresh.

Compound Pull Exercises

  • Barbell deadlift*
  • Pull-ups and chin-ups
  • Barbell row
  • Pendlay row
  • Dumbbell row
  • Cable row
  • T-bar row
  • Upright row
  • Lat pull-down

*Technically a pushing movement, but typically treated as a pull exercise.

Isolation Pull Exercises

  • Dumbbell pullovers
  • Face pulls
  • Bent-over rear delt lateral raise (or reverse pec deck)
  • Bicep curls (dumbbell or barbell)
  • Dumbbell hammer curls
  • Barbell or dumbbell shrugs

Leg Exercises for PPL Routine

Recall that a leg exercise can be either a push or pull from a biomechanics standpoint, but don't worry too much about that when selecting exercises for leg day of your PPL routine. Instead, focus on exercise variety so you work all lower-body muscles (i.e. quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and glutes). Choose anywhere between five to seven exercises, again starting with compound movements.

Ideally, you should start each leg day with a squat exercise as they are the best bang for your buck. Save the leg extensions and leg curls for the end of your workout when you're muscles exhausted.

Compound Leg Exercises

  • Barbell squats (front and back)
  • Deadlifts (stiff-legged for emphasis on glutes and hamstrings)
  • Lunges (dumbbell or barbell)
  • Bulgarian split squats
  • Barbell hip thrust
  • Leg press
  • Hack squats

Isolation Leg Exercises

  • Glute-ham raise
  • Glute kickbacks
  • Reverse hyperextension
  • Leg extensions
  • Leg curls
  • Calf raises
  • Hip abduction/adduction machine

Core Exercises

Since your core muscles are involved in both pushing and pulling movements, you are free to train them at your discretion on a PPL routine. In most cases, people prefer to work in a few core exercises as part of their leg workouts.

Here are some good core exercises to include on push-pull-leg routines:

  • Planks
  • Hanging leg raises
  • Ab rollouts/ab wheel
  • Hyperextensions
  • Medicine ball twists

PPL is a solid full-body split, so your core muscles will also get a good amount of indirect work through exercises like squats, rows, deadlifts, and standing overhead presses.

Example Workout Splits for Push-Pull-Legs Routines

To give you some guidance on PPL workout routines, we've created several templates for a range of experience levels. If you're new to strength training, it's wise to start with the beginner 3-day routine and stick to it for at least a few months. Once you're comfortable with exercise technique and have a foundation of muscle mass, moving to a four- or five-day split is fine.

You have total liberty to adjust the sets and reps for each exercise. The ranges used in the routines below are a healthy balance of high-reps (e.g. 10-15 per set) and low-reps (e.g. 3-6 per set) to support strength and muscle growth.

Note: The listed number of sets does not include warm-up sets. Perform three to four warm-up sets with a relatively light weight on the first exercise of each workout. Dynamic stretching and foam rolling may also be prudent to loosen up your muscles and facilitate blood flow.

For working sets, use use a weight that leaves you about one rep shy of absolute failure by the time you complete the designated amount of reps. Rest about 90 to 120 seconds between sets in lower rep ranges (e.g. 6 reps or less), and 60 to 90 seconds between the remaining sets.

Beginner 3-Day Push-Pull-Legs Split

For building muscle and getting stronger, beginners can't go wrong with a basic 3-day push-pull-legs split. It's simple, easy-to-follow, allows for ample recovery between workouts, and focuses on the "big 3" exercises: bench, squat, and deadlift.

Example Training Schedule:

  • Monday - Push Day Workout
  • Tuesday - Rest Day
  • Wednesday - Pull Day Workout
  • Thursday - Rest Day
  • Friday - Leg Day Workout
  • Saturday and Sunday - Rest Days

Push Workout

Sets

Reps

Flat Barbell Bench Press 4 10, 8, 6, 4
Standing Military Press 4 12, 10, 8, 6
Dips (Weighted) 3 10, 10, 10
Incline Dumbbell Fly superset w/Dumbbell Lateral Raise 3 15, 12, 12, 10
Skull crushers (EZ bar) 4 12, 10, 8, 8
Tricep Pressdown (V-Bar or Rope Attachment) 3 15, 12, 10

Pull Workout

Sets

Reps

Barbell Deadlift 4 8, 8, 6, 4
Pendlay Row 4 10, 10, 10
Pull-ups or Lat Pulldowns 3 12, 10, 8
Upright Row 4 15, 15, 12, 10
Hammer Curl superset w/Cable Facepulls (Rope Attachment) 3 15, 12, 10
Alternating Dumbbell Curl superset w/Bent-Over Dumbbell Lateral Raise 3 15, 12, 8

Leg Workout

Sets

Reps

Barbell Back Squat 4 10, 8, 6, 4
Stiff-Legged Deadlift (Barbell or Dumbbells) 4 12, 10, 8, 8
Dumbbell Lunge 3 15, 12, 10
Leg Extension superset w/Leg Curl 4 15, 12, 10, 8
Glute-Ham Raise or Reverse Hyperextension 3 10, 10, 10
Hanging Leg Raise superset w/Standing or Seated Calf Raise 3 15, 15, 15

 

Push-Pull-Legs 5-Day Split (Intermediate or Advanced Lifters)

This routine is suitable for intermediate and advanced lifters who prefer a 3-on, 1-off, 2-on, 1-off training schedule. Since you'll be lifting five days per week, there will be one PPL workout that "carries over" into the next week (see example below).

Example Training Schedule:

Week 1

  • Monday (Push Workout A)
  • Tuesday (Pull Workout A)
  • Wednesday (Leg Workout A)
  • Thursday (Rest Day)
  • Friday (Push Workout B)
  • Saturday (Pull Workout B)
  • Sunday (Rest Day)

Week 2

  • Monday (Leg Workout B)
  • Tuesday (Push Workout A)
  • Wednesday (Pull Workout A)
  • Thursday (Rest Day)
  • Friday (Leg Workout A)
  • Saturday (Push Workout B)
  • Sunday (Rest Day)

Week 3

  • Monday (Pull Workout B)
  • Tuesday (Leg Workout B)
  • Wednesday (Push Workout A)
  • Thursday (Rest Day)
  • Friday (Pull Workout A)
  • Saturday (Leg Workout A)
  • Sunday (Rest Day)

Push Workout A

Sets

Reps

Flat Dumbbell Bench Press 4 12, 10, 8, 6
Seated Dumbbell Shoulder Press 4 12, 10, 8, 6
Dips (Weighted) 3 15, 12, 10
Incline Dumbbell Fly superset w/Dumbbell Lateral Raise 3 15, 12, 12, 10
Dumbbell Overhead Tricep Extension 3 12, 10, 8
Tricep Pressdown (V-Bar or Rope Attachment) 3 15, 12, 10

Pull Workout A

Sets

Reps

Barbell Deadlift 4 8, 8, 6, 4
Close-Grip Lat Pulldown 3 15, 12, 8
Bent-Over Barbell Row 4 10, 10, 10, 8
Seated Close-Grip Cable Row 4 15, 15, 12, 8
Hammer Curl superset w/Cable Facepulls (Rope Attachment) 3 15, 12, 10
Alternating Dumbbell Curl superset w/Bent-Over Dumbbell Lateral Raise 3 15, 12, 8

Leg Workout A

Sets

Reps

Front Squat 4 8, 6, 6, 5
Barbell Good Morning 4 12, 10, 8, 8
Dumbbell Lunge 4 15, 12, 12, 10
Leg Extension superset w/Leg Curl 4 15, 12, 12, 10
Glute-Ham Raise or Reverse Hyperextension 3 15, 12, 8
Hanging Leg Raise superset w/Standing or Seated Calf Raise 3 15, 15, 15

Push Workout B

Sets

Reps

Standing Military Press 4 8, 8, 6, 6
Decline Close-Grip Barbell Bench Press 4 8, 8, 6, 6
Incline Dumbbell Bench Press 3 10, 8, 6
Machine or Cable Lateral Raise 4 15, 12, 10, 8
EZ-Bar Skullcrusher 3 10, 10, 10
Dumbbell Tricep Kickback 3 15, 12, 10

Pull Workout B

Sets

Reps

Pendlay Row 4 10, 8, 6, 5
Pull-ups 4 10, 10, 8, 8
Dumbbell Row 3 10, 8, 6
Barbell or Dumbbell Upright Rows 3 15, 15, 15
Barbell or Dumbbell Shrugs 3 15, 12, 10
Reverse-Grip Barbell Curl 3 15, 15, 15
Cable Curl 3 15, 12, 10

Leg Workout B

Sets 

Reps

Barbell Back Squat 5 10, 8, 6, 4, 3
Barbell or Dumbbell Stiff-Leg Deadlift 4 15, 12, 12, 10
Leg Press  3 12, 10, 8
Leg Curl superset w/Leg Extension 4 15, 12, 12, 10
Calf Exercise of Choice superset w/Ab Wheel 4 15, 12, 12, 10

 

Advanced 6-Day Push-Pull-Legs Split

For the inveterate bodybuilders and powerlifters out there, this 6-day split is as brutal as it gets (in a good way, of course). The key here is watching your training volume per workout so you don't get burned out quickly. Listening to your body will be crucial; don't be afraid to take an extra day or two off now and then if you're feeling gassed or run down.

Example Training Schedule:

  • Monday (Push Workout A)
  • Tuesday (Pull Workout A)
  • Wednesday (Leg Workout A)
  • Thursday (Push Workout B)
  • Friday (Pull Workout B)
  • Saturday (Leg Workout B)
  • Sunday (Rest Day)

Routine Notes:

  • AMRAP = As Many Reps As Possible
  • Drop Set for AMRAP = Rest for 10 seconds after completing your final set, then reduce the load 25% to 30% and perform AMRAP with the lower weight.

Push Workout A

Sets

Reps

Flat Barbell Bench Press 4 10, 8, 6, 4 
Seated Dumbbell Shoulder Press 4 12, 10, 8, 6
Dips 3 15, 12, 10 + Drop Set for AMRAP
Incline Dumbbell Fly superset w/Dumbbell Lateral Raise 3 15, 12, 12, 10
Dumbbell Overhead Tricep Extension 4 10, 10, 10, 8
Tricep Pressdown (V-Bar or Rope Attachment) 3 15, 12, 10 + Drop Set for AMRAP

Pull Workout A

Sets

Reps

Barbell Deadlift 4 8, 8, 6, 4
Close-Grip Lat Pulldown 3 15, 12, 8 + Drop Set for AMRAP
Bent-Over Barbell Row 4 10, 10, 10, 8
Seated Close-Grip Cable Row 4 15, 15, 12, 8 + Drop Set for AMRAP
Hammer Curl superset w/Cable Facepulls (Rope Attachment) 3 15, 12, 10
Alternating Dumbbell Curl superset w/Bent-Over Dumbbell Lateral Raise 3 15, 12, 8 

Leg Workout A

Sets

Reps

Front Squat 4 8, 6, 6, 4 + Drop Set for AMRAP
Barbell Good Morning 4 12, 10, 8, 8
Leg Press superset w/Calf Press on Leg Press 4 15, 12, 10, 8 + Drop Set for AMRAP
Dumbbell Lunge 4 15, 12, 12, 10
Leg Extension superset w/Leg Curl 4 15, 12, 12, 10
Glute-Ham Raise or Reverse Hyperextension 3 15, 12, 8
Hanging Leg Raise superset w/Standing or Seated Calf Raise 3 15, 15, 15

Push Workout B

Sets

Reps

Standing Military Press 4 12, 10, 8 , 8 + Drop Set for AMRAP
Decline Barbell Bench Press 4 12, 10, 8, 6
Incline Dumbbell Bench Press 3 15, 12, 10
Machine or Cable Lateral Raise 4 15, 12, 10, 8 + Drop Set for AMRAP
EZ-Bar Skull crusher 4 15, 12, 10, 8
Dumbbell Tricep Kickback 3 15, 12, 8 + Drop Set for AMRAP

Pull Workout B

Sets

Reps

Pendlay Row 4 10, 10, 10, 8
T-Bar Row or Chest-Supported Row Machine 4 10, 10, 10, 8 + Drop Set for AMRAP
Dumbbell Row 4 10, 10, 10, 8
Barbell or Dumbbell Upright Rows 3 15, 15, 15
Barbell Shrugs or Dumbbell Shrugs 3 15, 12, 10 + Drop Set for AMRAP
Reverse-Grip Barbell Curl 3 15, 15, 15
Cable Curl 3 15, 12, 10 + Drop Set for AMRAP

Leg Workout B

Sets

Reps

Bulgarian Split Squat (Rear Foot Elevated) 5 12, 10, 10, 8, 8
Barbell or Dumbbell Stiff-Leg Deadlift 4 15, 12, 12, 10 + Drop Set for AMRAP
Leg Curl superset w/Leg Extension 4 15, 12, 12, 10
Hyperextension superset w/Ab Wheel 4 15, 12, 12, 10
Calf Exercise of Choice 5 12, 10, 10, 8, 8 + Drop Set for AMRAP

 

How to Progress: Training Frequency and Volume

Building muscle and getting stronger are often seen as very confusing processes. There are so many workouts and articles out there that claim to have the "best" methods, so it can be hard for lifters to see the bigger picture. Instead of over-complicating the muscle-building process, let's keep it simple by covering core principles that lead to continual progress on any training routine.

The stimulus for muscle growth is progressive overload, which requires lifting heavier loads and/or adding more sets and reps than before [1]. This is due to muscular adaptation - as your muscles adapt to training stressors (e.g. volume), more stress is necessary to force them to keep adapting.

Another key variable in your workout routine is training frequency (i.e. workouts per week) [2]. Switching from a 3-day split to a 4-day split is an example of increased training frequency.

Beginners generally fare better with a training split that's 3 days per week and targets the full body. As you develop strength and build muscle, bumping training frequency up to a 4- or 5-day split that focuses on upper-body and lower-body muscles twice per week may be prudent.

What is Training Volume?

Progression begins on the set level, with the addition of reps. Eventually, when you can perform a quality number of reps per set, you must add weight to make the set more challenging. Ultimately, this all ties into training volume — calculated as the number of sets you perform times reps completed times the load lifted: Sets x reps x load (in kg or lbs) = total training volume.

For example, if you complete 3 sets of 10 reps with 135 lbs on the bench press, the total training volume for that exercise is: 3 x 10 x 135 lbs = 4,050 lbs. Now, watch what happens if you come back the following week and complete 4 sets of 8 reps with 135 lbs: 4 x 8 x 135 lbs = 4,320 lbs. Boom! You just increased your training volume.

Notice how even small changes to your set and rep schemes can significantly increase training volume. As such, you should always be striving to beat your previous workouts on a PPL routine. Sometimes this will mean simply adding weight to the bar every week (especially if you're new to lifting); other times, it might mean doing an extra set of an exercise. As long as you're progressing and increasing training volume in some form or fashion, your muscles will keep adapting.

The catch is that as you progress, progress gets harder, resulting in a logarithmic curve over time (where time is on the X-axis and "progress" is on the Y-axis).

Thus, progression is linear only in the incipient phases of a lifter's career. As you become more experienced and inch closer to your genetic potential, it takes longer to build muscle and increase strength (see chart below).

progressive overload

Regardless of experience level, it behooves gym-goers and athletes to track their progress in the weight room. No one with appreciable muscle mass is weak, and the inverse is generally true as well. Without progression, or an increase in training volume over time, you won't see much in the way of muscle growth and strength gains.

Want to Build Muscle with Push-Pull-Legs? Eat!

By this point, you're probably antsy to get in the gym and start pumping some iron — which is great! But don't forget that your diet is critical for building muscle and getting stronger. You can train like an animal and never miss a workout, but if you're not eating enough, you simply won't grow.

The first step is learning how to count macros and get a better sense of what you should eat, so be sure to check out these two articles:




Elliot Reimers, M.S.(C), CNC
Elliot Reimers, M.S.(C), CNC

Author

Elliot holds a B.S. in Biological Sciences from the University of Minnesota, as well as being a Certified Sports Nutritionist (CISSN) and Certified Nutrition Coach (CNC). He is currently pursuing a Master's of Science in Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology at Michigan State University. Elliot began freelance writing circa 2012 and has since written 100s of articles and several eBooks pertaining to nutritional science, dietary supplements, exercise physiology, and health/wellness. Being a “science whiz,” he has a passion for helping people understand how nutrients (and other chemicals) and exercise work on a cellular and molecular level so they can make smarter choices about what they put in, and do with, their bodies. When Elliot is not busy writing or studying, you can find him pumping iron, hiking the mountains of beautiful Colorado, or perusing nutraceutical research.



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